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Capstone and Thesis Research: Citing

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General Writing Resources

APA Formatting & Style Guide

APA (American Psychological Association) Style is used to format scholarly papers and other writings in the behavioral and social sciences, including psychology and sociology. For specific examples, refer to the APA Sample Citations from the BU Library or the APA Manual of Style, available in the library. If you can't find an exact match for what you need to cite, use the closest example you can find.

One author

Reference List Form:

Altenberg, H. E. (1992). Holistic medicine: Meeting of east and west.  Tokyo, Japan & New York, NY: Japan Publications Inc.

In-text Form: (Altenberg, 1992)

Two authors

Reference List Form:

Cone, J. D., & Foster, S. L. (1993). Dissertations and theses from start to finish: Psychology and related fields.  Washington, DC:

American Psychological Association.

In-text Form: (Cone & Foster, 1993)

Three or More Authors

Reference List Form:

Marks, D. F., Murray, M., Evans, B., & Willig, C.  (2000).  Health psychology: Theory, research, and practice.  London, England: Sage.

Three to seven authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.

More than seven authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.

In-text Form:   

A work by three to five authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.

(Marks, Murray, Evans, & Willig, 2000) [1st citation]

(Marks et al., 2000) [subsequent citations]

When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author, followed by “et al.” 

 

Edited Book

Reference List Form:

Church, D., & Sherr, A. (Eds.). (1987).  Heart of the healer.  Boulder Creek, CA: Aslan Publishing

In-text Form: (Church & Sherr, 1987)

 

Book Chapter

Reference List Form

Booker, J. (1993). Women in the history of medicine.  In J. E. Pizzorno & M. T. Murray (Eds.), Textbook of natural medicine (pp. I

:WomHM1-12). Seattle, WA: Bastyr College Publications.

In-text Form: (Booker, 1993)

Journal Article (paginated by issue)

Reference List Form:

Flannery, M. A. (1996). Archives of phytomedicine: The collection of the Lloyd Library and Museum in Cincinnati. HerbalGram, 36, 42-48.

In-Text Form: (Flannery, 1996)

 

Journal Article (discontinuous pagination)

Reference List Form:

McLoone, P. (1996). Suicide and deprivation in Scotland.  British Medical Journal, 312(2), 501, 503, 543-544.

In-Text Form: (McLoone, 1996)

 

Website or Webpage – undated (if dated, replace n.d. with the year)

Reference List Form:

Bastyr University (n.d.).  Bastyr University Integrative Oncology Research Center (BIORC).  Retrieved from: http://www.bastyr.edu/research

/clinical-research-center/integrative-oncology

In-Text Form: (Bastyr University, [n.d.])

 

Electronic Article with DOI Assigned

Reference List Form:

Pidano, A. E., Kimmelblatt, C. A., & Neace, W. P. (2011).  Behavioral health in the pediatric primary care setting: Needs, barriers, and

implications for psychologists.  Psychological Services, 8(3), 151-165. http:/dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019535

In-Text Form: (Pidano, 2011)

 

Electronic Article with no DOI Assigned

Reference List Form:

Babalola, O.O., Tugbobo, O .S., & Daramola, A.S. (2010). Effect of processing on the vitamin C content of seven Nigerian green leafy

vegetables.  Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2(6).  Retrieved from http://maxwellsci.com/jp/j2p.php?jid=AJFST

In-Text Form: (Babolola, 2010)

Streaming video (e.g. YouTube, Vimeo, etc.)

Reference List Form:

Massey University. (2009, July 27). APA Referencing: Electronic Sources [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6KZK4-

SXfU

In-Text Form: (Massey University, 2009)

 

Online graphic data

Reference List Form:

National Cancer Institute. (2006). NCI CAM Research Projects FY 2005 by Research Approach [Graph illustration of NCI CAM Research

Projects]. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cam/newsletter/2006-summer/3.html

In-Text Form: (National Cancer Institute, 2006)

 

Online Images

Reference List Form:

Bryan, L. (2010). The Seeker [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://loisbryan.redbubble.com/sets/11115/works/5802508-the-seeker

In-Text Form: (Bryan, 2010)

 

UpToDate*

Enter Manually in Mendeley as Book Section; Add access date to URL field.

Reference List Form:

Williams, J., & Nieuwsma, J. (2016). Screening for depression in adults. In J. A. Melin (Ed.), UpToDate.  Retrieved

from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/screening-for-depression-in-adults. Retrieved February 1, 2017

In-Text Form: (Williams & Nieuwsma, 2016)

Reference List Form:

Natural Medicines

Natural Medicines. (2018). Echinacea [Monograph]. Retrieved from

https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/databases/food,-herbs-supplements/professional.aspx?productid=981

In-Text Form: (Natural Medicines, 2018)

 

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association by American Psychological Association Staff
Call Number: BF76.7 .P8 2010
Publication Date: 2009
An EasyGuide to APA Style by Beth M. Schwartz; R. Eric Landrum; Regan A. R. Gurung
ISBN: 1452268398
Publication Date: 2013-02-15

 

APA: Citation to a Journal Article

OpenSUNY Info Literacy Citation Tutorial & Quiz.The information literacy users guide: chapter 4, gather components of a citation.  [Image]. Retrieved from http://libguides.southernct.edu/c.php?g=7125&p=34582

Learn and have fun: test your APA citation knowledge.

AMA Formatting & Style Guide

The American Medical Association (AMA) style is used in the field of medicine. At Bastyr University, nutrition and exercise science students are asked to check the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (JAND) , for examples of how to format their papers: JAND uses the AMA style.

NOTE: you must use accepted abbreviations for journal titles when you're citing using AMA style. You can look them up here.

Book-1 Author

Skipper A. Advanced Medical Nutrition Therapy Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2009.

Book->1 Author

Han SS, Holmstedt JOV. Human Microscopic Anatomy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1981.

*List all authors, if 6 or less.  For more than 6, list first 3 followed by “et al.”

Book with Editors

Lake J, Spiegel D, eds. Complementary and Alternative Treatments in Mental Health Care. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishers;

2007.

Chapter From Book

Vasquez MJT.  Ethics in Multicultural Counseling Practice.  In:  Ponterotto JG, Casas JM, Suzuki LA, Alexander CM, eds.  Handbook of

Multicultural Counseling.  Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications; 2010:127-145.

Monographic Series

Sionneau P, Gang L.  Diseases of the Neck, Shoulders, Back and Limbs.  Boulder, CO: Blue Poppy Press; 1997.  The Treatment of Disease in

TCM Series 4.

 

IN-TEXT FORM

In-text citations point the reader to the references listed in one’s Reference List. In AMA style, the citations consist of superscript Arabic numerals placed after the text being cited. The items in the Reference List are organized and numbered in the order they were referenced in the text and cited accordingly.

The Dept. of Nutrition and Exercise Science uses the modified format, that of Arabic numerals contained in parentheses. For Example: In the following example, the study is the third mentioned in the text, and therefore the third item on the reference list, so the citation is written as “(3)”:

“In a recent study examining the use of Vitamin D as a diabetes prevention aid (3), results indicated…”

Journal Article-1 Author

Cooksey NR.  Bridging the gap between textbook and maternity patient:  a nurse-developed teaching model for first-year medical students.

Birth. 2010;37(4):325-333.

Article From Journal-More than 1 Author

Gillingham LG, Lescheid DW. Probiotics and mucosal immunity:  strain- specific effects on TH1/TH2 cell modulation. Int J Naturopathic Med.

2009;4(1):18-22.

*List all authors, if 6 or less.  For more than 6, list first 3 followed by “et al.”

Website or Webpage (Undated)

How to Treat Gestational Diabetes.  American Diabetes Association Web site. http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational /how-to-

treat-gestational.html. Accessed August 31, 2011.

Online Article with DOI Assigned

Julias M, Buettner HM, Shreiber DI. Varying assay geometry to emulate connective tissue planes in an in vitro model of acupuncture needling.

Anat Rec. 2011;294(2):243-252. doi:10.1002/ar.21308.

Online Article with no DOI Assigned

Varughese J, Richman S. Cancer care inequity for women in resource-poor countries. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 3(3):122–132.  http://

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3046761/?tool=pubmed.  Accessed August 31, 2011.

 

IN-TEXT FORM

In-text citations point the reader to the references listed in one’s Reference List. In AMA style, the citations consist of superscript Arabic numerals placed after the text being cited. The items in the Reference List are organized and numbered in the order they were referenced in the text and cited accordingly.

The Dept. of Nutrition and Exercise Science uses the modified format, that of Arabic numerals contained in parentheses. For Example: In the following example, the study is the third mentioned in the text, and therefore the third item on the reference list, so the citation is written as “(3)”:

“In a recent study examining the use of Vitamin D as a diabetes prevention aid (3), results indicated…”

Streaming video (e.g. YouTube, Vimeo, etc.)

American Heart Association.  2010 Guidelines for CPR.  YouTube.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9T25SMyz3A. Published October 17,

2010. Accessed August 31, 2011.

Format for Citing Databases:

In citing data from an online database, include the following elements, if applicable, in the order shown:

Author(s). Title of the database [database online]. Publisher’s location (city, state, or, for Canada, city, province, country, or, all others, city, country): publisher’s name; year of publication and/or last update.  URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication]. Accessed [date].

UpToDate*

-Enter Manually in Mendeley as Book Section.

-Add access date to URL field.

Williams J, Nieuwsma J. Screening for depression in adults. In: Melin JA, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA; 2016. https://www.uptodate.com

/contents/screening-for-depression-in-adults. Retrieved Feb 1 2017.

Natural Medicines

Aloe: In Natural Medicines. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Center. [Updated August 15, 2018; Accessed October 4, 2018]. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/databases/food,-herbs-supplements/professional.aspx?productid=607.

 

 

IN-TEXT FORM

In-text citations point the reader to the references listed in one’s Reference List. In AMA style, the citations consist of superscript Arabic numerals placed after the text being cited. The items in the Reference List are organized and numbered in the order they were referenced in the text and cited accordingly.

The Dept. of Nutrition and Exercise Science uses the modified format, that of Arabic numerals contained in parentheses. For Example: In the following example, the study is the third mentioned in the text, and therefore the third item on the reference list, so the citation is written as “(3)”:

“In a recent study examining the use of Vitamin D as a diabetes prevention aid (3), results indicated…”

If you can't find an example in the resources below, see print guides Available in the Library.